Hypoxemia

Respiratory Disease of the Bovine Neonate

Respiratory disease is a constant challenge for dairy replacement heifer rearing systems, and is responsible for 21.3% of mortality in preweaned calves and 50.4% of deaths in weaned heifers.1 There are many negative long-term consequences for survivors of subclinical, clinical, and chronic calf pneumonia including poor growth, reproductive performance, milk production, and longevity.2–4 These calves also become sources of infection for other calves, and can cause outbreaks after weaning in group pens.5 Contamination of the environment with bacterial and viral pathogens is the obvio

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