June 2011

Supernumerary Teats In Cattle

In general three types of supernumerary teats have been observed in cattle (GIFFORD1, 934) :

  1. Caudal teats, are teats located at the rear of the normal.
  2. Zntercalary teats, are those found between the normal teats.
  3. Ramd teccts, supernumeraries that are a ramification of the normal

Some of this supernumeraries may be without glands, others are orifices of small glands, and yet others may open into one of the normal glands.

Discovery Zone:

Determination of the Inheritance Pattern of Hyperthelia in Cattle by Maximum Likelihood Analysis

In dairy cattle breeding supernumerary teats (hyperthelia) are an undesired condition due to aesthetic reasons, possible distrubances from machine milking, and, perhaps most important, because supernumerary mammary glands may act as a reserve for bacteria that cause mastitis (Frerking and Lotthammer 1981; Steiger and Grunenfelder 1988).

Discovery Zone:

A survey of castration methods and associated livestock management practices performed by bovine veterinarians in the United States

Castration of male calves destined for beef production is a common management practice performed in the United States amounting to approximately 15 million procedures per year. Societal concern about the moral and ethical treatment of animals is increasing. Therefore, production agriculture is faced with the challenge of formulating animal welfare policies relating to routine management practices such as castration.


Dehorn Calves With Paste (English & Spanish)

It’s a good idea to dehorn cattle that live in confined areas to prevent injuries to humans and other animals. Of the various dehorning methods, dehorning with paste is easy, effective, and economical as well as low-stress to the animal.


Colonic intussusception in a Holstein calf

An intussusception is defined as the invagination of one segment of bowel into the lumen of the adjacent distal segment. The invaginated portion of bowel is referred to as the intussusceptum; the segment of bowel into which it is invaginated is termed the intussuscipiens (1,2). Four types of intussusception are recognized in cattle (1). The "enteric" type involves one segment of the small intestine, usually the distal jejunum or the ileum, invaginating into another.

Discovery Zone:

Abdominal disease in calves: A diagnostic challenge

The diagnosis of colic in calves presents a challenge for veterinarians. The main goal in examining calves with suspected abdominal disease is to determine whether a surgical or medical condition is present. Once the nature of the condition has been ascertained, decisions regarding treatment and prognosis can be made.

Discovery Zone:

Atresia Coli Inherited in Holstein Cattle

A mating pIan was designed to test the genetic hypothesis that atresia coli is inherited as an autosomal recessive at a single locus with two alleles. Matings between 8 putative carrier sires and 56 putative carrier dams resulted in 59 normal and 8 atresia coli calves, which was not different from the expected number of 8.1 affected calves. One case of atresia coli was observed among 628 calves born concurrently in the herd. All of the affected calves born from planned and contemporary matings were inbred.


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