April 2011

Clinical findings and diagnosis of thrombosis of the caudal vena cava in cattle

This paper describes the causes, clinical findings and diagnosis of caudal vena caval thrombosis in cattle. Occlusion of the vein is caused by a ‘white’ thrombus, and typical clinical signs include chronic weight loss, poor general condition and intermittent fever. Most affected cattle have respiratory signs; in some, pulmonary haemorrhage, ascites and sudden death occur.

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HERD-BASED DIAGNOSIS OF SUBACUTE RUMINAL ACIDOSIS

Subacute ruminal acidosis is a common health and production problem in the cattle industries of the United States. It is a risk wherever cattle are fed diets rich in starch in order to achieve high rates of growth or milk production. For a variety of reasons, subacute ruminal acidosis has been a difficult diagnosis to make in the field. Foremost, the absence of specific diagnostic tests has made the diagnostician dependent on recognizing the syndrome of characteristic secondary clinical signs within the herd.

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Esophageal obstruction due to a trichobezoar in a cow

A 4-year-old, 6-month pregnant, Angus cow was presented to our clinic with a history of acute onset of severe bloat, respiratory distress, and inability to swallow. The owner had tried unsuccessfully to pass a stomach tube and reported that the tube was being obstructed just beyond the throat. Clinical examination of the cow revealed that the temperature was normal, the heart rate was 96 beats/min, and the respiratory rate was 60 breaths/min. The cow had severe abdominal distention and coughed at regular intervals. Copious amounts of saliva were expelled during these coughing episodes.

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THE USE OF THYGESEN'S PROBANG IN THE TREATMENT OF BOVINE ESOPHAGEAL OBSTRUCTION DUE TO SUGAR BEETS

Cattle eat many things that cause esophageal obstruction, but in the authors' practice, sugar beets are the most common. Sugar beets and tops are very palatable to cattle and are readily consumed. The tops and the small beets (under 3" diameter) are being used increasingly either as silage or by allowing cattle to graze on windrows of beets remaining in the field after harvest. Obstruction may be caused by small beets, or by portions cut from beets of all sizes during harvesting.

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Case Study - Esophageal foreign body in a 2-day-old calf

A 2-day-old male Charolais crossbred calf presented with a section of an esophageal feeding tube partially obstructing his esophagus. External palpation of the neck confirmed the location of the obstruction to be within the cervical esophagus. A rumenotomy was performed and the foreign body was successfully removed.

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Respiratory Disease of the Bovine Neonate

Respiratory disease is a constant challenge for dairy replacement heifer rearing systems, and is responsible for 21.3% of mortality in preweaned calves and 50.4% of deaths in weaned heifers.1 There are many negative long-term consequences for survivors of subclinical, clinical, and chronic calf pneumonia including poor growth, reproductive performance, milk production, and longevity.2–4 These calves also become sources of infection for other calves, and can cause outbreaks after weaning in group pens.5 Contamination of the environment with bacterial and viral pathogens is the obvio

Nutritional Disorders in Beef Cattle

Nutritional disorders associated with both forage and feed consumption can have a large impact on the profitability of beef cattle operations. Forages are an important component of beef cattle production systems in Arkansas. Most cow-calf and stocker cattle enterprises in Arkansas rely heavily on forage-based nutritional programs. Forages are used for both livestock grazing and hay production. Arkansas has over 4.4 million acres of pastureland and harvests over 1.3 million acres of hay each year.

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Selenium Deficiency in Cattle

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace mineral for cattle and humans alike. It is essential because it a component of several enzymes that are important antioxidants. It is a trace mineral because it is needed in very small (trace) amounts. We usually talk about Se requirements in terms of tenths of parts per million (ppm)—remembering a part per million is 1 inch in 15.8 miles—we are talking about a tenth of an inch in 15.8 miles.

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Reduced likelihood of bovine coronavirus and bovine respiratory syncytial virus infection on organic compared to conventional dairy farms

The prevalence of antibodies to bovine coronavirus (BCV) and bovine respiratory syncytial virus (BRSV) infections was studied in 20 conventional and 20 organic dairy herds. The organic farms had produced ‘certified’ milk for at least 2 years. On two occasions, with a 1-year interval, 699 serum samples from 624 peri-parturient cows were tested by ELISA for antibodies to BCV and BRSV. Accompanying data relating to the sampled animals were collected in order to identify potential factors associated with increased antibody prevalence.

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Bovine Respiratory Syncytial Virus

This article discusses various aspects of BRSV, its epidemiology, pathogenesis, diagnostic tests, and select topics on immunity and vaccination.

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