February 2011

Managing Bovine Pinkeye in Beef Herds

Two field studies showed that a widespread pinkeye epidemic in a herd can be effectively treated with injections of long-acting oxytetracycline, followed my feeding the antibiotic in the ration. When the disease is less prevalent injecting affected animals with penicillin or oxytetracycline is effective.....

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Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis Antimicrobial Therapy

Infectious bovine keratoconjunctivitis (IBK) is one of the most common diseases of cattle and is of major economic importance. If the primary aetiological agent, Moraxella bovis, is successfully eliminated from ocular tissues corneal ulcers heal at a constant rate. If treatment is unsuccessful ulcer reoccurrence may follow initial healing. Appropriate antimicrobial selection requires knowledge of antimicrobial sensitivities and distribution in ocular tissues and tears.

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Pinkeye in Cattle

Pinkeye is a painful, debilitating condition that can severely affect animal productivity.


Pinkeye (infectious bovine kerato-conjunctivitis, or IBK) is a bacterial infection of the eye that causes inflammation and, in severe cases, temporary or permanent blindness. Most cattle producers will be familiar with pinkeye, but may not know how best to treat it and minimise its spread within a herd.

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Case Report: Polioencephalomalacia in Dairy Calves

Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) is a neurologic condition in ruminants that can be caused by several dietary factors including water deprivation-sodium ion toxicosis, lead poisoning and high sulfur intake. Three month old calves on a 1500-cow dairy experienced neurologic problems during three separate episodes. The morbidity rate approached 75% each time. Based upon post-mortem examination, three of the affected calves were diagnosed with PEM. The history revealed a change in the formulation of the pelleted feed four day prior to the initial outbreak.

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The Relationship between Sulfer, Thiamine and Polioencephalomalacia

Thiamine deficiency has been classically described as the cause of ruminant polioencephalomalacia (PEM). More recently excess dietary sulfur has been shown to be a major cause of PEM. This paper reviews the relationship between PEM and thiamine metabolism in mature cattle, thiaminase in plants, rumen acidosis and excess dietary sulfur.

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Sulfur Toxicity - Polio in Cattle can be Caused by Sulfur Toxicity

Polioencephalomalacia (PEM) was first reported in 1956 and was described as a neurologic disorder of cattle characterized by blindness, ataxia, recumbancy and seizures. The micropathologic description was a laminar cortical necrosis. This description of PEM is still accurate 50 years later, but several additional causes have been identified.

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Fact Sheet No. 10: Bovine Coccidiosis

Introduction

Coccidiosis causes significant economic losses in cattle. Although most cattle are exposed to coccidia and infected, most of the infections are self-limiting and mild or asymptomatic. The parasites that cause this condition are members of the species Eimeria, and the most important of this species for causing disease in cattle are Eimeria bovis and Eimeria zuernii.

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Prevent coccidiosis in calves-It Can be Deadly (By: Heather Smith Thomas)

Adult cattle are rarely affected by coccidiosis, but they pass the parasite eggs, called oocysts, in their manure. They serve as a source of infection for calves who have not yet gained enough immunity to fight off this protozoan parasite. Calves can become ill if they pick up large numbers of oocysts.

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Coccidiosis in Calves and Stocker Cattle

Coccidiosis is an infection of the small and large intestine caused by the protozoan parasites, Eimeria zuernii and Eimeria bovis. Without any preventive program the parasites invade the mucosal lining of the small and large intestines.


Calves become infected by consuming the oocysts from fecal-contaminated pasture, feed, water, and bedding or by licking the hair of other contaminated calves. The parasite can remain viable for months in soil, water and vegetation, thriving in a moist, moderate, airy environment.

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Control of cryptosporidiosis in neonatal calves: use of halofuginone lactate in two different calf rearing systems

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To date there is no effective treatment for bovine cryptosporidiosis. This study describes the use of halofuginone lactate in preventing cryptosporidiosis in naturally infected neonatal calves on a dairy farm with a high prevalence of infection. The animals were kept in two different calf rearing systems. A randomized double-blind trial was carried out with 32 naturally infected calves, divided into four groups. The two prophylactic halofuginone lactate treated groups were kept in either individual or group pens.

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